Building Rome Series

The Magic of Hitting Focus


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The Magic of Hitting Focus

The Mental Approach to Hitting Series

Baseball and Fast Pitch Softball


Yes, hitting focus is a little magical!  But the longer coaches coach, the more they come to appreciate the “power of the mind”.

Hitters often struggle in both practice and games with their minds wandering everywhere but where it should be. Baseball and fast pitch softball players will be amazed how shifting hitting focus can dramatically affect results.

In this mental approach article, Building Rome Series will identify four ways a hitter can focus their attention. Some attention focuses help hitters get the most out of practice and increase their chances of recalling that learning later. Other focuses can more directly impact game performance.


Internal Hitting Focus (Old School “Muscle Memory”)

Internal hitting focus is a focus on a specific body movement(s). This kind of attention involves a lot of conscious effort, but once habit is obtained the body moves itself. This can be gratifying.

“Physiologists know that any skeletal muscle activity that is learned can become essentially automatic with practice. Muscle memory is therefore a common term for neuromuscular facilitation, which is the process of the neuromuscular system memorizing motor skills. We know that repetition is the mother of skill and that practice makes permanent. After repeating the same movement over and over again, the movement seemingly becomes second nature. It’s like we’re not paying attention but of course it’s all coming from the same region of the brain that controls everything.”


When to Use an Internal Focus

Especially for developing hitters, when the desire is to improve movement mechanics, an internal focus remains a proven and effective method. This method can build new motor patterns as well as get rid of old, deeply-ingrained, unwanted habits. Even accomplished athletes (baseball, softball, golf, gymnastics) will sometimes use an internal focus to improve a very targeted segment of a specific skill.

hitting focusBuilding a swing, piece by piece, utilizing an internal focus, requires focusing on specific body movements and positions. Just as in learning to type on a keyboard, there must be a blueprint or model to follow. When utilized in this manner, internal focus can be a powerful tool for building a fundamentally sound swing.

For this reason, an internally focused,  “ground up” swing build, should be guided by an experienced hitting coach. The coach should have a strong understanding of the transfer of energy up the kinetic links. In other words, the coach must know how the body works as a whole to build speed.

The Building Rome Series of books, Building the High-Level Swing, Volume 1, 2, and 3 provides a step by step guide, or roadmap, for this type of training.


Shortcomings of Internal Hitting Focus

Recent scientific studies have concluded internal focus may not always result in improvements in skills or game performance. This is a consequence of:

  • The vast complexity of movements.

There is no perfect swing as demonstrated by the veritable smorgasbord of movement patterns identified in successful hitters. Internal focus can’t address all of these.

  • Internal focus slows down reaction times.

What if the movements being driven into muscle memory are not a good fit for the hitter, or worse, are never demonstrated by any successful hitter? The hitter is simply getting better at the wrong things.


Due to these issues, internal focus should be seen as a supplement and not the be-all-end-all.

For practicing, internal focus can be best used during the early learning stages. For all hitters, combining internal focus with other focuses is usually most effective for training.

During performance, it is usually best to avoid any degree of internal focus.

The only exception might be in the case of the young or beginning hitter. For example, the new hitter has a swing fault which wrecks havoc on their rate of contact during game at bats. In this case, focusing on the swing fix may help the youth hitter improve performance.

Knowing when to use an internal focus is vital to the ability to both grow and perform as a hitter.


External Process Hitting Focus

External process focus is a focus on external equipment, such as the bat or the ball. Here are some examples:

  • Focus on the ball from the pitcher’s release to contact.
  • Attention on making contact with the ball on the sweet spot of the bat.
  • Focus on the path of the bat.

hitting focus

With an external process focus, the athlete focuses on the process involved to achieve the task, rather than how to move. The hitter is not being forced into a specific position by their own conscious mind. Movements are allowed to self-organize to accomplish the required process.

Studies have shown external process focus to be very beneficial for speed of learning as well as performance.

For example, a hitter may more quickly perfect an inside-out swing path by thinking about and visualizing the path of the barrel. Compare this to an internal focus where the hitter is actively trying to slot rear elbow, then extend arms and release hands.


Concepts Rule!

Building Rome Series emphasizes the following in all training articles, videos, and books:

The hitter perceives the concept and improves the action by intentionally striving to reproduce the concept.

For this reason, it is vital hitters have productive concepts.

The Building Rome Series of books, Building the High-Level Swing, Volume 1, 2, and 3 contains over 100 fundamental and productive concepts to improve hitting.


External Result Hitting Focus (Targeting)

hitting focusExternal result focus is a focus on the ball flight result. A hitter may be very unaware of their movement, yet through a pure focus on the desired end result, or target, movement can respond accordingly.

An example is throwing a ball when playing catch. Complicated data regarding weight, muscle force, angles in wrist and arm, and precise release points are required. The concept is to get the ball the correct distance and direction. Yet your brain somehow figures these out instinctively and improves it through practice.

Often, experienced hitters can learn and perform much better with external result focus. Allow the hitter to first “feel” what it will take to hit the ball at the desired target. This type of focus is effective and efficient, allowing body movements to self-organize to achieve the goal.

In short, targeting should be used to some extent in all practices. Pick a target and a pitch location and have the hitter hit to it.


Neutral Focus

With a neutral focus, hitters allow actions to occur automatically.

Hitters try to enter “zombie” mode where nothing matters. They are completely relaxed, simply seeing the ball and reacting.

Neutral focus can be beneficial when distractions or too much thinking about results are the cause of most poor at bats. This focus is desirable when hitters have good fundamentals but need to draw them out more consistently.

For the still developing hitter, neutral focus will tend to result in reverting back to previous unproductive habits.

To summarize, neutral focus will not raise the ceiling of the hitter’s potential, but this type of attention focus may help them reach that ceiling more often.


Final Thoughts

hitting focus

Coaches and players, experiment with different focuses. Changing attention focus can have a surprising affect on outcomes.

When practicing, determine which focus helps you get the most benefit out of practice reps. Go back and forth between focuses. Maybe try combining two focuses together at the same time.

During games, try various approaches to see which is more effective for relaxing and seeing the ball well.

Remember, every hitter is different. A mental approach which creates success for one hitter, may reduce productivity for another.

Have fun with hitting focus!


Recommended Reading

If you are inclined to further reading on these subjects, here is a list of informative books on sports psychology and motor cognition available on They are packed with useful training and performance tips valuable for all athletes:

“The Talent Code: Greatness Isn’t Born. It’s Grown. Here’s How” by Daniel Coyle.

“Talent is Overrated” by Geoff Colvin.

“Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise” by Anders Ericsson.

“Outliers: The Story of Success” by Malcolm Gladwell.


Building Rome Series Blog: The Mental Approach to Hitting Series

Here are other videos and articles in The Mental Approach to Hitting Series:

Train Brain for Better Hitting

Eight Steps to a Productive Plan at the Plate

When and How to Look for a Pitch

How to Improve Seeing the Ball

The Magic of Hitting Focus

How to Train Hitting Scientifically

How to Change a Bad Batting Habit


Building Rome Series Books: Building the High-Level Swing

step by step hitting fundamentalsBuilding the High-Level Swing, Volumes 1, 2, and 3 contains a detailed and comprehensive examination of over 100 hitting fundamentals, techniques, and options.

In the Building Rome Series of books, fundamentals are built step by step. Construction of skills are in functional order, providing a “roadmap” to becoming a great hitter.

All baseball and fast pitch softball players can “climb the steps of the Roman Coliseum” to becoming a powerful and productive hitter.

Enjoy the quest!