Building Rome Series defines Universal fundamentals as those where, for at least ninety percent of professional and successful college hitters, there is one prevalent technique for executing the fundamental.

Most hitting techniques are not Universal. Rather mechanics should be fit to the unique abilities and physical attributes of the hitter. But there is a core group of fundamentals nearly all expert performers’ execute. To a large degree this is what makes them so good.

The single biggest problem with developing hitters trying to learn to hit is their lack of understanding of what they are trying to achieve. If the inexperienced hitter has poor Universal concepts, they will simply get better at doing the wrong things.


45 Universal Fundamentals

Here is a list of fundamentals which all great hitters do and all developing hitters should strive to train and build habit for:

  1. Continually Improve Ability to See the Ball.
  2. Maximize Hand-Eye Coordination.
  3. Check Swing on Poor Pitches.
  4. Swing Hard at Good Pitches.
  5. Head and Eyes Level in Stance.
  6. Grip Bat in Fingers.
  7. Relax in Stance.
  8. Rear Leg Flexion during Gather.
  9. Heel Up on Toe Touch.
  10. Flexed Front Leg at Toe Touch.
  11. Front Side In.
  12. Consistent Stride (Length, Height, Tempo).
  13. Stride to Even Alignment.
  14. Head Centered During Approach.
  15. Maintain Athletic Position as Swing Executes.
  16. Hands Connect to Rotation.
  17. Front Heel Drive.
  18. Rear Knee Drive.
  19. Rear Knee Hinge.
  20. Firm Front Side Halts Approach.
  21. Maintain Balance.
  22. Core Rotation.
  23. Shoulder Rotation.
  24. Head Steady during Rotation.
  25. Rearward Leaning Axis of Rotation (Stay Back).
  26. Hip and Shoulder Separation.
  27. Shoulder Tilt.
  28. Slot Rear Elbow.
  29. Target with Lead Arm.
  30. Lead Arm Tight.
  31. Barrel Inside Pitch.
  32. Palm Up, Palm Down at Contact.
  33. Wrist Snap.
  34. Linear Extension.
  35. Emphasize and Develop Early Bat Speed.
  36. Long and Smooth Follow-Through.
  37. Good Tempo.
  38. Slow, Controlled Gather on Time.
  39. Time Stride to Pitcher’s Motion.
  40. Toe Touch on Time.
  41. Front Heel Drive on Time
  42. Swing in Plane of Pitch.
  43. Optimize Attack and Launch Angles.
  44. Develop Ability to Recognize the Type of Pitch At Release.
  45. Have a Plan at the Plate.

See our books, Building the High-Level Swing, Volumes 1, 2, and 3 for a detailed and comprehensive examination of each of these 45 Universal fundamentals. More information can be found at