Building Rome Series

45 Universal Hitting Fundamentals


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45 Hitting Fundamentals ALL Hitters Should Execute

Baseball and Fast Pitch Softball


We begin this article by distinguishing between universal hitting fundamentals and customizable hitting techniques.

Universal Hitting Fundamentals


hitting fundamentals

Head Centered during Approach (Universal Fundamental)

hitting fundamentals

Rear Knee Hinge to Un-weight Rear Foot (Universal Fundamental)

Building Rome Series defines universal hitting fundamentals as follows. For at least ninety percent of professional and successful college hitters, there is one prevalent technique for executing the fundamental.

Importantly, nearly all expert performers’ execute the core group of 45 fundamentals the same way. In fact, to a large degree, this is what makes them so good.

Furthermore, with these 45 universal hitting fundamentals, there is one right way and all hitters should do it this way to reach their potential.

Identifying the 45 universal hitting fundamentals is the subject of this article.


Fit to Player Hitting Techniques

In addition to universal fundamentals, intricate hitting techniques must also be developed. Each technique should be a good match for the abilities (strength, athleticism, speed, desire, aggressiveness, etc.) of the specific hitter. Moreover, a hitting strategy which works for one hitter can be ineffective for another.

The choices hitters make, by experimenting and selecting which techniques work best for them, comprise the hitter’s own unique style.

In a separate article, Building Rome Series identifies 57 hitting techniques which hitters execute differently. With each of these style oriented options and mechanics, there are multiple right ways.


The Art of Coaching

The real “art” of coaching hitters is to know when to let things be (style). When to experiment with a change (techniques). And lastly, when to insist on a change (fundamentals).


THE 45 Universal Hitting Fundamentals

Here is the list of 45 universal hitting fundamentals. All great hitters can be found to execute all of these fundamentals.

Therefore, it makes sense, developing hitters should also strive to train and build habit for universal fundamentals. In fact, the single biggest problem with developing hitters trying to learn to hit is their lack of productive concepts. If the inexperienced hitter has poor concepts, they will simply get better at doing the wrong things.

In you were wondering, this list is presented in recommended order for coaching the developing hitter. Combined with 57 hitting techniques, this list encompasses an effective, step by step, “ground up”, swing build training plan.

Beginning Basics

  • Improve Ability to See the Ball
  • Maximize Hand-Eye Coordination
  • Check Swing on Poor Pitches
  • Swing Hard at Good Pitches

Stance and Grip

  • Head and Eyes Level in Stance
  • Grip Bat in Fingers
  • Relax in Stance


  • Rear Leg Flexion during Gather

Stride, Separate Hands, and Approach

  • Heel Up on Toe Touch
  • Flexed Front Leg at Toe Touch
  • Front Side In
  • Consistent Stride (Length, Height, Tempo)
  • Stride to Even Alignment
  • Head Centered During Approach


  • Front Heel Drive
  • Rear Knee Drive
  • Rear Knee Hinge
  • Firm Front Side Halts Approach
  • Maintain Balance

Core Rotation

  • Core Rotation
  • Head Steady during Rotation
  • Rearward Leaning Axis of Rotation (Stay Back)
  • Hip and Shoulder Separation

Head and Shoulders

  • Shoulder Rotation
  • Shoulder Tilt
  • Maintain Athletic Position as Swing Executes

Arms and Hands

  • Hands Connect to Rotation
  • Slot Rear Elbow
  • Target with Lead Arm
  • Lead Arm Tight
  • Barrel Inside Pitch
  • Palm Up, Palm Down at Contact
  • Wrist Snap
  • Emphasize and Develop Early Bat Speed


  • Long and Smooth Follow-Through


  • Good Tempo
  • Slow, Controlled Gather on Time
  • Sync Stride to Pitcher’s Motion
  • Toe Touch on Time
  • Front Heel Drive on Time

Basics of Quality At Bats

  • Swing in Plane of Pitch
  • Optimize Attack and Launch Angles


When striving to hit the various pitch locations, swing path and body positioning varies among successful hitters.

Off Speed and Movement

The strategy for making sold contact with off speed and movement pitches varies among successful hitters.

Mental, Strategic, and Situational

  • Develop Ability to Recognize the Type of Pitch At Release
  • Have a Plan at the Plate


The extent of this list may surprise some readers. At least two conclusions can be derived:

  • Becoming a successful hitter is one of the most challenging skills in sports.
  • A hitter’s concepts and training methods are crucial to reaching a high level of success.


57 Hitting Non-Universal Techniques

57 Hitting Techniques Which Should be Customized to the Player lists non-universal mechanics. Each option should be fit to the abilities of the individual athlete.


Building Rome Series Books

step by step hitting fundamentals

Building the High-Level Swing, Volumes 1, 2, and 3 contains a detailed and comprehensive examination of over 100 hitting fundamentals, techniques, and options.

In the Building Rome Series of books, fundamentals are built step by step, in functional order, providing a “roadmap” to becoming a great hitter.

Additionally, tips and suggestions are offered for how to customize each non-universal technique to the specific style and type of hitter.

All baseball and fast pitch softball players can “climb the mountain”, step by step, to become a productive hitter. Enjoy the quest!